History of Prague

880 – 1306 AD | Premyslid Dynasty
round 870: Foundation of Prague Castle.
Around 926: Foundation of St. Vitus Cathedral on the grounds of Prague Castle.
965: Prague was first reported in the narration of Ibrahim Ibn Jakub, a merchant.
973: Foundation of Prague bishopric.
10th century: Foundation of Vysehrad on the opposite bank of the Vltava river.
1085: Prague becomes the residence of the first Bohemian king, Vratislav I.
1172: Construction of Judita’s Bridge, the 2nd stone bridge in Central Europe.
Around 1230: Establishment of the Old Town (Staré Mesto).
1257: Foundation of Lesser Town (Malá Strana).
1306: Premyslid dynasty died out.

14th Century | Luxemburg Dynasty
1310-1346: John of Luxembourg rules as the king of Bohemia.
Around 1320: Foundation of Hradcany, the area around Prague Castle.
1338: Foundation of the Old Town Hall – the importance of the city increases.
1344: Prague bishopric upgraded to an archbishopric, beginning with St. Vitus, St. Wenceslas, and St. Adalbert Cathedral (finished 1929).
1346-1378: Charles IV epoch – Prague becomes the capital of the Bohemian Kingdom and the Holy Roman Empire.

Charles IV - the most famous Czech king and Roman Emperor

1348:Foundation of the New Town and Charles University, the first university in Central Europe.

15th Century | Hussite Movement
1419-1437: Attempts of the clergy to reform the church resulted in the Hussite’s revolutionary movement (Jan Hus – the reform preacher and martyr).

1526 – 1918 | Habsburg Dynasty
1526: The Hapsburg dynasty ascended the Bohemian throne (lasted until 1918).
1583-1611: Rudolf II becomes the king of Bohemia. Prague becomes the emperor’s residence and the center of social and cultural life.
1618-1620: Defeat of the Czech nobles’ uprising; Czech language and national consciousness begin to decline.

John of Nepomuk - famous Czech saint

1784: Union of the four hitherto independent Prague urban units (Hradcany, Lesser Town, Old Town, and New Town).
1784-1848: Period of Czech national revival, the beginning of the industrial revolution, and establishment of Czech institutions.

1918 | foundation of Czechoslovakia
1918: Proclamation of the independence of Czechoslovakia. Prague becomes the capital of the new state.

1939-1945 | World War II
1939-1945: Occupation by Nazi Germany.
1945: The Prague uprising, “liberation” of Prague by the Soviet army.

1948 | Communist Putsch
1948: Seizure of power by KSC after the February putsch.
1968: Prague Spring – an attempt to reform socialism, the intervention of 5 states of the Warsaw Pact.

1989 | Velvet Revolution and Reinstallment of Democracy
1989: Velvet revolution, Vaclav Havel was elected President of Czechoslovakia.
1990: First free elections.

1993 | Split of Czechoslovakia
1993: On January 1, Czechoslovakia split in two, and the Czech Republic was founded.
1993: On January 26, Vaclav Havel was elected the first president of the Czech Republic.

Prague Castle - Seat of the Czech President

1999: On March 12, the Czech Republic became a member of NATO.
2004: On May 1, the Czech Republic joined the European Union (E.U.).
2008: On January 1, the Czech Republic accedes to the Schengen agreement and removes internal borders with Schengen area countries. This allows travel to and from these countries without checks, both at land borders and airports.

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